Bone augmentation is without doubt one of the commonest ancillary procedures in dentistry. For many years, it has been the one technique to place an implant in sufferers missing jawbone quantity. Now, when skinny implants are made from ultra-strong supplies, the method is used much less steadily however didn’t lose its relevance.
A man-made bone graft is critical in case of the poor situation of the bone tissue, after accidents, surgical procedures, and tumors, in addition to when elements make one-stage specific implantation unimaginable. With the assistance of the surgical procedure, it’s attainable to unravel the problem of bone tissue deficiency and carry out implantation in these sufferers to whom it was beforehand inaccessible.
What’s Bone Augmentation?
Bone augmentation, additionally known as bone grafting, is a surgical process. It entails the creation of a man-made cavity within the bone, into which osteoplastic materials is grafted, or donor bone tissue is implanted. The strategies of its implementation have their very own traits, indications, and contraindications, however they result in a single consequence – replenishment of the bone quantity.
Why Does the Bone Disappear?
For the conventional functioning of bone tissue, fixed compression is critical. It’s absent within the place of the extracted or misplaced tooth. Consequently, the tissues stop to be provided with blood often, their diet is inadequate, and the cells stop to divide actively to.
The bone begins a resorption course of as early as 3 months after shedding the tooth. The method impacts the center layer, which might lose quantity in several instructions. If it resorbs in peak, implanting a regular implant 1 cm lengthy shall be unimaginable. If it resorbs in width, implanting a design of regular thickness is not going to be attainable. In probably the most troublesome circumstances, it resorbs each in peak and width.
In other places of the oral cavity, resorption processes go inconsistently. On the decrease jaw, the width decreases sooner, on the higher jaw, the peak is first to lower. The higher jaw is usually vulnerable to resorption within the backside area of the maxillary sinus. Subsequently, molars from above are probably the most troublesome to switch with implants.
What Are the Strategies of Bone Grafting?
The historical past of dentistry is aware of some ways to construct bone again. A few of them have misplaced their relevance at this time. Others have been modified and are getting used efficiently. The selection is set by the diploma of bone tissue insufficiency, the placement of the defect, and various different causes.
The principle strategies of bone grafting are:
- Biomembrane after tooth extraction. Using barrier membranes has a preventive worth. Their objective is to stop quickly dividing tender tissue cells from occupying the cavity of the tooth socket after its extraction. Within the cavity shaped after dental extraction, osteoplastic materials is positioned and closed with a particular membrane.
- Bone splitting. This methodology is used when the width of the alveolar ridge is inadequate. Throughout the surgical procedure, the bone is split into two halves. On the finish of the process, an osteoplastic mass is positioned inside and, if vital, implantation might be carried out. A biomembrane is positioned on prime of the surgical website, the cavity is closed with a gum flap and sutured. Engraftment time takes round 3-6 months.
- Autotransplantation. Most frequently, this methodology is used after surgical procedures or accidents, when there’s a important lack of bone tissue. The essence of the method is the transplantation of a small a part of one’s personal bone tissue into the jaw. Most frequently, the pelvic bone, the chin space, or the ends of the decrease jaw are used for transplantation.
- Sinus lifting. A surgical procedure throughout which the quantity of tissues of the alveolar ridge of the higher jaw is restored. This can be a vital situation for implantation within the higher jaw since there may be an elevated threat of issues and low stabilization because of the closeness of the thinned bone to the underside of the maxillary sinus. Sinus raise is carried out by a number of strategies and is extra mild than autotransplantation. Engraftment time is about 3-6 months.
- Osteoplasty with granules. This methodology entails using synthetic materials to revive the peak of the bone. The operation proceeds with the opening of the gums, filling the holes with particular granules, and shutting the bone mass from above with a bioresorbable membrane. Implants might be positioned on request, after which the gum is sutured. It engrafts in 6 months.